1 a grammatical relation between a word and a noun phrase that follows; "`Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer' is an example of apposition"
2 (biology) growth in the thickness of a cell wall by the deposit of successive layers of material
3 the act of positioning close together (or side by side); "it is the result of the juxtaposition of contrasting colors" [syn: juxtaposition, collocation]
- a construction in which one noun or noun phrase is placed with another as an explanatory equivalent, both having the same syntactic function in the sentence.
- The relationship between such nouns or noun phrases.
- The quality of being side-by-side, apposed instead of being opposed, not being front-to-front but next to each other.
- A placing of two things side by side, or the fitting together of two things.
- In biology, the growth of successive layers of a cell wall.
- Czech: přístavek
Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to define or modify the other. When this device is used, the two elements are said to be in apposition. For example in the phrase "my friend Alice" the name "Alice" is in apposition to "my friend".
More traditionally, appositions were called by their Latin name appositio, although the English form is now more commonly used. It is derived from Latin: ad (“near”) and positio (“placement”).
Apposition often results when the verbs (particularly verbs of being) in supporting clauses are eliminated to produce shorter descriptive phrases. This makes them often function as hyperbatons, or figures of disorder, because they can disrupt the flow of a sentence. For example in the phrase: "My wife, a nurse by training,...," it is necessary to pause before the parenthetical modification "a nurse by training."
Restrictive vs. non-restrictiveApposition can either be restrictive, or non-restrictive, where the second element parenthetically modifies the first.
In a non-restrictive appositive, the second element parenthetically modifies the first without changing its scope. Non-restrictive appositives are not crucial to the meaning of the sentence. In a restrictive appositive, the second element limits or clarifies the foregoing one in some crucial way. For example in the phrase "my friend Alice," Alice specifies to which friend the speaker is referring and is therefore restrictive. On the other hand, in the above example: "my wife, a nurse by training,...," the parenthetical "a nurse by training" does not narrow down the subject, but rather provides additional information about the first element, namely, "my wife." While a non-restrictive appositive must be preceded or set off by commas, a restrictive appositive is not set off by commas.
Not all restrictive clauses are appositives. For example, Alice in "Bill's friend, Alice,…" is an appositive noun phrase; Alice in "Bill's friend, whose name is Alice,…" is not an appositive but, rather, a restrictive clause. The main difference between the two is that the second explicitly states what an apposition would omit: the statement that the friend in question is Alice.
The same words can change from restrictive to non-restrictive (or vice versa) depending on the speaker and context. Consider the phrase "my brother Nathan." If the speaker has more than one brother, the name Nathan is restrictive as it clarifies which brother. However, if the speaker has only one brother, then the brother's name is parenthetical and the correct way to write it is: "my brother, Nathan,...."
ExamplesIn the following examples, the appositive phrases are offset in italics:
- Arizona senator Barry Goldwater won the Republican nomination.
- I went to the movie with my friend Alice.
- John and Bob, both friends of mine, are starting a band.
- An appositive, a grammatically incomplete noun phrase, is sometimes set off by commas, a reader-friendly invention.
- Alexander the Great, the Macedonian conqueror of Persia, was one of the most successful military commanders of the ancient world.
- The singer Dean Martin will be performing at the Sands Hotel.
apposition in Czech: Přístavek
apposition in German: Apposition
apposition in Spanish: Aposición
apposition in Esperanto: Apozicio
apposition in French: Apposition
apposition in Icelandic: Viðurlag
apposition in Hebrew: תמורה (תחביר)
apposition in Hungarian: Értelmező (nyelvészet)
apposition in Slovak: Prístavok
apposition in Finnish: Appositio
apposition in Tagalog: Apposition